Current Global Fashion Capitals:
The Heart ♥ Emoji (for love) is Top Word, Pope Francis topped by Ebola as Top Name, “Hands Up, No Shoot” is Top Phrase
Pope Francis Topped by Ebola for Top Name of 2014 (see below)
“Hands Up, No Shoot” is the Top Phrase of the Year of 2014 (see below)
Documenting the year 2014 through English-language word usage
Global Language Monitor’s 15th Annual Survey of Global English
” Each emoji represents an emotion, expression, or state of mind, or a person, place or thing, so much so, that we see the birth of the AlphaBorg or AlphaBit.” said Paul JJ Payack, President and Chief Word Analyst of the Global Language Monitor.
“The English Language is now undergoing a remarkable transformation unlike any in its 1400 year history — its system of writing, the Alphabet, is gaining characters at amazing rate. These character are ideographs or pictographs that are called emoji and emoticons. There are about a thousand emoji characters now officially recognized by Unicode Consortium, the official keepers of coding that forms the basis of the Internet. They regularly review new suggestions with the next 37 or so being finalized for June 2015. Then the new emoji can be embedded in any number of devices for any number of languages.
“The AlphaBIT now includes letters, numbers, the diacritical marks that compose emoticons, as well as clever electronic solutions that provide real-time access to more than hundreds of emoji.”
GLM’s top words, phrases and names this year represent some five continents, which continues to confirm the ever-expanding nature of the English language.
Example of Emoji Keyboard
The figure below shows an Emoji keyboard for Apple. When you select the Emoji keyboard, you will see a new key on the bottom row, which looks like an stylized globe.
You click this key to access a number of emoji ideographic menus for differing classes of emoji. In this way the key doesn’t present a single letter, number, or diacritical mark but rather access to hundreds or thousands of emoji.
The following figures show the Top 7 Emojis on a specialized Twitter feed for 24 hours back in June 2014. Fourteen of the Top 100 were heart-based.
At last count there are now some 722 characters, with another 250 being made available during the next year, and 37 more due for approval in June 2015.
The Top Words of 2014 follow.
Rank / Word / Comments
- The Heart ♥ Emoji (for love) — The Heart ♥ Emoji (for love) is the Top Word of 2014. Each emoji represents an emotion, expression, or state of mind, or a person, place or thing.
- Hashtag — The re-invented pound-sign becomes evermore powerful.
- Vape — Smoking an electronic or e-cigarette, shorthand for vaporize, or vaping. Vapers are banned from indoor vaping in New York and other locales.
- Blood Moon — Four total eclipses of the moon in eighteen-month span. Some Christians see it as the presaging a “lunar apocalypse”.
- Nano — From Greek for dwarf, small; now 1 billionth of a meter, and any number of words surrounding nano technology.
- Photo Bomb — Breaking into a ‘pre-arranged” photograph without authorization resulting in often humorous outcomes.
- Caliphate — Literally, a land ruled by an Islamic Caliph typically governed under Sharia Law.
- (White) privilege — The alleged advantages of having lighter colored skin in a diverse society.
- Bae — Term of endearment for one’s object of desire.
- “Bash” Tag — Using a hashtag to undermine your frenemies.
- Transparency — That state of government openness that is apparently unachievable in the Western World.
- Sustainable — The Jimmy Carter of words; keeps getting stronger since it was WOTY in 2006.
- Clickbait — A link you just have to click on, though its more of a paid-for bait-and-switch.
- Quindecennial — Fifteen year anniversary; 2014 is the quindecinnal of the 21st century.
- Comet — Comet 67p has a visitor from the Rosetta Spacecraft.
The Top Phrases of 2014
Rank / Phrase / Comment
- Hands Up, Don’t Shoot — Demonstrators’ continued chant after shooting of unarmed suspect in Ferguson, Missouri.
- Cosmic Inflation — The explosive growth of the Universe from virtually nothing. OK, there was something nowadays called the Singularity, sized about a billionth of a billionth of an inch. More evidence emerges that the Big Bang is settled science.
- Global Warming — The past is prologue here. 15,000 years ago New York City was buried under 5,000 meters of ice.
- Climate Change – Add ‘anthropogenic’ warming to this fact: the existence of the Bering Land Bridge 20,000 years ago suggests that the Oceans were some 100 meters lower than today. (That’s about a football field.)
- War on Women — In the Islamic state, women and young girls (10 and older) are stolen and then sold into sexual slavery or forced into involuntary marriages. And this after watching the beheading of their husbands, sons and brothers.
- All Time High — Many see this all-too-prevalent description of many world markets as more of a warning that a cause for celebration.
- Rogue nukes — Sources state that Iran can now assemble a bomb in two weeks. This is going from hypothetical to reality. (If true, International Inspection Effort: Fail.)
- Near-Earth Asteroid — Admittedly more of a space rock than an asteroid but it did create significant property damage as well as injuries before crashing into a Russian lake.
- Big Data — No 1 on the current High Tech Buzzword list, ushering in a global transformation in how data is processed, analyzed, and transformed into solutions.
- Polar Vector — An unusually long-lived Polar Outbreak plunging deep in the Southern territories.
The Top Names of 2014
Rank /Name / Comments
- Ebola — The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a highly contagious, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. The current outbreak started in West Africa earlier this year and has claimed some 5,000 lives as of this writing.
- Pope Francis — The most highly cited name, again. The former Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the 266th Pope of the Catholic Church, born December 17, 1936 in Buenos Aires.
- World War One — A conflict from the early 20th century that many historians are beginning to understand as incomplete.
- Médecins Sans Frontières — Doctors Without Borders, is a Nobel Peace Prize winning NGO founded in 1971. Heroically, involved in current Ebola epidemic.
- MH370 — Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 that disappeared on Saturday, 8 March 2014, while flying from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, with 239 passengers and crew.
- FIFA World Cup — Better known simply as the World Cup, in 2014 won by Germany over Argentina (and heavily favored Brasil).
- Ice Bucket Challenge — A popular charity-based fund-raising activity to generate funds for ALS. The stunt involves pouring buckets of water and ice over the heads of the participants.
- Crimea — Reminder to Mr. Putin and the history-conscious (and poetically inclined): The Charge of the Light Brigade did not end well.
- The Mid-terms — The US national election held during non-Presidential election years, hence the name, Mid-term.
- NSA — The National Security Agency of the US collects intelligence through clandestine means of both foreign and (to the surprise of many) domestic sources.
- Prince George of Cambridge. 5a. HRH Georgie — Nickname of Prince George of Cambridge, son of ‘Wills and Kate.” Watch this space as a ‘sister?’ enters the family.
- Malala Yousafzai — Two years ago named co-name of the Year by GLM, this year the co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.The Pakistani girl shot by terrorists for promoting the right to education for girls.
- Xi Jinping — “Steady as she goes,” as his term proceeds as China’s paramount leader.
- President Obama – ‘Hope and Change’ retreats even further into history as Obama’s second term troubles mount.
- Sochi Olympics — The XXII Olympic Winter Games that took place 7 to 23 February 2014, in Sochi, Russia.
Methodology: GLM’s Word of the Year rankings are based upon actual word usage throughout the English-speaking world, which now numbers more than 1.83 billion people. To qualify for these lists, the words, names, and phrases must meet three criteria: 1) found globally, 2) have a minimum of 25,000 citations, and 3) have the requisite ‘depth’ and ‘breadth’ of usage. Depth is here defined as appearing in various forms of media; breadth that they must appear world-over, not limited to a particular professional or social group or geography. The goal is to find the word usage that will endure the test of time.
Top Words: No. 1 ‘404’, No.2 Fail, No.3 Hashtag
Top Phrases: No. 1 Toxic Politics, No. 2 Federal Shutdown, No.3 Global Warming/Climate Change
Top Names: No. 1. Pope Francis, No. 2 ObamaCare, No.3 NSA
Top Words: No. 1 ApocalypseArmageddon, No.2 Deficit, No. 3 Olympiad
Top Phrases: No. 1 Gangnam Style, No. 2 Climate Change/Global Warming, No. 3 Fiscal Cliff
Top Names: No. 1 Newtown and Malala Yousafzai, No. 3 Xi Jinping
Top Words: No. 1 Occupy, No.2 Fracking, No.3 Drone
Top Phrases: No. 1 Arab Spring, No. 2 Royal Wedding, No.3 Anger and Rage
Top Names: No. 1 Steve Jobs, No. 2 Osama bin-laden and Seal Team Six, No.3 Fukushima
Top Words: No. 1 Occupy, No.2 Fracking, No.3 Drone
Top Phrases: No. 1 Anger and Rage, No. 2 Climate Change, No. 3 The Great Recession
Top Names: No. 1 Hu Jintao, paramount leader of China, No. 2 iPad, No. 3 Barack Obama
Top Words: No. 1 Twitter, No. 2 Obama-, No. 3 H1N1
Top Phrases: No. 1 King of Pop, No. 2 Obama-mania, No. 3 Climate Change
Top Names: No. 1 Obama, No. 2 Michael Jackson, No. 3 Mobama
Top Words: No. 1 Change, No. 2 Bailout, No. 3 Obama-mania
Top Phrases: No. 1 Financial Tsunami, No. 2 Global Warming, No. 3 “Yes, We Can!”
Top Names: No. 1 Barack Obama, No. 2 George W. Bush, No.3 Michael Phelps
Top Words: No. 1 Hybrid (representing all things green), No. 2: Surge
Top Phrase: Climate Change
Top Name: Al Gore
Top Word: Sustainable
Top Phrase: Stay the Course
Top Name: Dafur
Top Words: No. 1, Refugee No. 2: Tsunami No. 3: Katrina
Top Phrase: Outside the Mainstream
Top Name: (acts of ) God
Top Word: Incivility (for inCivil War)
Top Phrase: Red States/Blue States No. 2: Rush to War
Top Name: Dubya/Rove
Top Word: Embedded
Top Phrase: Shock and Awe, No. 2: Rush to War
Top Name: Saddam Hussein, No. 2 Dubya
Top Word: Misunderestimate
Top Phrase: Threat Fatigue
Top Name: W (Dubya)
Top Word: Ground Zero
Top Phrase: ‘Lets Roll’
Top Name: The Heros
Top Word: Chad
Top Phrase: Dot.com
Top Name: W (Dubya)
About the Global Language Monitor
30 – 30 – 30
GLM Words of the Year Schedules
No. 1, Words, Names and Phrases of 2014 will be announced during the US Thanksgiving Week, Tuesday November 25
No. 2, Top Business Buzzwords (50) will be announced in early December.
No.3, Top Words of the Quindecennial of the 21st century will be announced in mid-December.
No. 4, Top Words, One Hundred Years Hence & Map of the Re-federalized United States for 2114 A.D. later in December.
Words of the Year Already Announced:
Top Words From Hollywood (HollyWords) announced during Academy Awards Week
Top Television Words of the Year (TellyWords) announced during Emmy Awards Week
Top High Tech BuzzWords Everybody Uses But Few Understand (Biannual) (25) announced during SXSWi (Austin)
Top Global Fashion Capitals (55) announced before the Spring Fashion Weeks
Top Green Words (25) announced during Earth Day festivities
Top Fashion Buzzwords (15) announced before the Fall Fashion Weeks
Top Politically (in)Correct Words (Biannual) (25) announced during Columbus Day Week
Top Universities by Internet Mediabuzz announced every nine months
Top Colleges by Internet Mediabuzz announced every nine months
Current Number of Words in the English Language is 1,027,770.5 (July 1, 2014 estimate)
Phrase of the Day: Settled Science
As thoughtful readers have learned since the launch of the Global Language Monitor in the fall of 2003, all objectivity in media is suspect, and for good reason. The non-bias claimed on all sides of the political equation is itself, biased, since all media have come to see their particular viewpoint as objective and true, right and just, supported by the facts, scientific or otherwise, and agreed to by all learned people (who happen to agree to their particular beliefs).The fact that their audiences steadfastly agree with their positions, only serves to re-enforce their particular biases. “We all think so, so it must be true!” (… and it is logically consistent, is a frequent addition.)
One of the most dangerous of these biases is the concept of ‘settled science’.
Science, by definition, can never be settled.
The Scientific Method has been adhered to since the Enlightenment. It is composed of five or six steps
- Record and analyze data
- Compare the results to the hypothesis.
- If necessary, either modify the hypothesis or the experiment
There is always more complete data to be found and always room for another test of the hypothesis, to ensure completeness.
Another time-honored tradition, is the custom of employing Occam’s Razor in the decision-making process. Occam’s Razor is stated in Latin as: “Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem” (‘Do not multiply things without necessity). The principle is essential for model building because for a given set of data, there is always an infinite number of models explaining the data.
In other words if you have two choices 1) a snowball moves because invisible, alien drones take it and deliver it to its target, or 2) angular momentum — you must choose No. 2 because that is the simplest.
If there is any fact in science that cannot be debated, it’s Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Yet nonetheless, every year there are numerous well-publicized challenges to differing aspects of the Theory. How can this be if the Theory of Relativity is ‘settled’?
The answered is because this is part of the scientific method!
Lest this be seen as an argument against human-enhanced Global Warming, please allow me to point out that this is not the case. We consider Global Warming as close to settled science you can get but not for the reasons you might think.
Settled Science is not a new term, in fact, its use stretches back some 150 years, although the settled science that it described would seem a Hall of Infamy in the early 21st century.
Settled Science in late 1800s:
- The division of Humankind into ‘races’ differentiated by alleged Intellectual Potential (or limitations), Color of Skin, Shape of the head, and Geographic Location.
- Segregation of women and girls from higher education. Alleged reasons: women’s brains could not deal with rigorous thinking — and men would become physically and psychologically unhinged in their presence.
- Excluding women from voting for much the same issues.
Settled Science in early 1900s:
- Space flight is not possible because there is nothing in space for an engine to push against.
- Since space cannot be empty, there needs to be a substance and name it ether.
- The Universe cannot be infinite, so we live in an ‘island universe’ that we call the Milky Way.
Settled Science later in the 20th century
- There are so many safeguards built into nuclear power plants that the odds of an accident are 50,000,000,000 to 1.
- A ‘population bomb’ would wipe out millions or billion of humans before the end of the century.
- An impending Ice Age would settle upon Northern climes before the end of the century with great death and destruction in its wake.
- Being gay or lesbian was classified as abnormal and a psychiatric condition by the experts in the field.
Settled Science early in the 21th century
- That nothing can exceed the speed of light was a given until it was recently ‘proven’ that the Inflationary Stage of the first moments of the Big Bang expanded thousands or millions of light-years in less than a millionth of a second.
With Occam’s Razor in mind we must come to the conclusion that ‘settled science’ is a term that often contradicts the Scientific Method, itself and,therefore, must be used with great caution.
Phrase of the Day: Global Warming / Climate Change
FIFA Corruption Scandal Impacts World Cup Marketing Partners
June 13, 2014, Austin, TEXAS — The apparent disarray in Brazil, and the looming corruption scandal involving the Qatar bid for 2022 World Cup, has had outsized impact on FIFA 2014 Sponsors and Partners. This according to an analysis completed by the Global Language Monitor the first day of play in the beleaguered 2014 World Cup.
Overall, some 9.26 percent of mentions of the FIFA Partners and Sponsors are affiliated with ‘corruption’, ‘disarray’, or similar terms. When Partners and Sponsors are measured for these terms separately, Partners come in with a 9.2 percent brand-affiliated rate while Sponsors’ brand affiliation number came in at 9.3 percent. This means that overall both Sponsors and Partners are both implicated evenly. However, this is not the case on a brand-by-brand level. Overall brands had differing rates of affiliation. When measured by the Global Language Monitor’s Brand Affiliation Index (BAI), the individual brands comprising the FIFA World Cup Sponsors and Partners had significantly differing levels of ‘affiliation’. Overall, the average BAI of the partners was 166.7, while that of the sponsors was 28.7. The higher the BAI, the more closely a brand is linked to the corruption scandal.
The six World Cup 2014 Partners are ranked by their Brand Affiliation Index(BAI) when linked to 2014 World Cup and words like “corruption”. Their scores range from 279. to 50.86.
Here are the six World Cup Partners ranked in descending order of their BAI scores.
The eight World Cup 2014 Sponsors are ranked by their Brand Affiliation Index (BAI) when linked to 2014 World Cup and words like “corruption”. The scores range from 73.47 to 1.42.
- OI Telecommunications
- Moy Park
- Yingli Solar
- Continental Football
- Johnson & Johnson
- Castrol Motor Oil
There are a number of press reports detailing the efforts of some brands to downplay the effects on the scandal to their brand. When your brand could be sullied in fro of the 3.4 billion television viewers of World Cup 2014, their concerns, whether or not admitted, are serious and significant. The individual numbers are determined by Global Language Monitor’s (GLM) Brand Affiliation Index (BAI), a proprietary, longitudinal study that analyzes the global association between (and among) individual brands and their competitors or, in this case, the FIFA World Cup 2014. The value of World Cup sponsorship continues to rise, from $10 million for lessor arrangements to partnerships approaching $200 million, though these fees are dwarfed by Olympic partnerships, a cost estimated to be up to $1 billion, fully loaded, over a four-year Olympiad.
Since 1970 a whole new vocabulary has entered the English Language.
New Words and New ‘Senses’ of Old Words
Austin, Texas, Earth Week, April 2014 — Climate Change has topped the Global Language Monitor’s Earth Day Words that Changed the World analysis. Climate Change outpaced Sustainable and Global Warming in the third annual analysis of Global English.
Since the first Earth Day was celebrated as an ‘environmental teach-in’ on April 22, 1970 a whole new vocabulary has entered the English Language. The Global Language Monitor has determined the top new words and new ‘senses’ of old words that have been engendered since that first Earth Day in 1970. The words are ranked by order of present-day usage in the English-speaking world. The study was updated the second week of April 2014.
“As the term ‘Climate Change’ suggests, the issues that the first Earth Day helped bring to the fore have had an evermore profound effect on global culture — and the English language,” said Paul JJ Payack, president and chief word analyst of GLM. “The issues these words represent are now viewed as essential to human progress, and even survival.
The words analyzed are but the most profound examples of a movement that has been gaining momentum at least since the 1960s.
GLM used their Narrative Tracker methodologies to determine and rank the Earth Day words. The criteria included determining which words have had an impact on the environmental movement and/or were influential in its growth.
The Top Words Engendered by Earth Day and the Environmental Movement since 1970 are listed below.
Rank/Word/Last Year’s Rank/Definition
1. Climate change (4) — Now used twice as much as the term ‘global warming’. Originally favored by those who think the warming of the planet is primarily dues to long-term atmospheric cycles.
2. Sustainable (3) — The ability to create self-replicating systems that can persist over time. Sustainable was GLM’s word of the year in 2006.Green (1) — Practices that are in harmony with the environment.
3. Global warming (11) — Favored by those who think the warming of the planet is primarily due to human influence. (Compare Climate Change, above).
4. Eco- (as a prefix) (5) — Shorthand for ‘ecological'; from the Greek ‘oikos’ for house (or table).
5. Vegan (9) — Those who abstain from eating animal or dairy products, often avoiding any products made from animals (such as leather or gelatin); coined in 1944 in the UK by Donald Watson.
6. Ecology (7) — the relations of beings to each other and their environment; from the Greek ‘oikos’ for house (or table).
7. Recycle (8) — The re-using of materials once viewed as waste.
8. Hybrid (car) (22) — Cars that use a mixture of technologies to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.
9. Locavore (10) — Thinking globally while eating locally.
10. Emissions (6) — In this sense, gases and particles sent out into the atmosphere through industrial production, automobiles, etc.; from the Late Latin emittere, to send out of.
11. Xeriscape (14) — Literally ‘dry landscaping'; using natural elements in a desert landscape for yard enhancement. Begging the question: must every yard resemble an English Manor?
12. Natural (food) (21) — Food grown with without artificial ingredients (such as color) and produced in a manner similar to that used in a well-stocked home kitchen.
13. Renewable energy (2) — Energy derived from solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and similar ‘sustainable’ sources.
14. Organic food (18) — Food grown or produced without synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, hormones, irradiation and genetic modification.
15. Carbon footprint (19) — The total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generate by a human activity. Driving a late-model, fuel-efficient car emits about 6 pounds of CO2 every ten miles. Term first used in 1980. Alternative definition — Your life reduced to the a series of equations on energy (carbon) consumption.
16. Biodegradable (15) — Organic material that decays naturally in a relatively short time.
19. Post-consumer (waste) (20) — Material that can be used as a resource to build new products.
20. Emissions (6) — In this sense, gases and particles sent out into the atmosphere through industrial production, automobiles, etc.; from the Late Latin emittere, to send out of.
21. Greenwash (25) — Highlighting aspects of a product that may or appear to be favorable to the environment in order to re-shape its brand image.
22. Biomass (13) — Material derived from plants that can be used as a renewable energy source.
23. Biofuels (24) — Finally, we are reaching a break-even point with sugar based biofuels in Brazil.
24. Greenhouse Effect (23) — The heating of the Earth’s surface in a fashion similar to a greenhouse, with GHG acting as glass windows that trap heat. The result of the increased emission of CO2 and other GHGs.
25. Carbon trading (26) — Trading, in effect, the rights to pollute between different manufacturers in the global marketplace.
26. Free-range (27) — The animal has been raised with access to the outside; not the same as ‘free roaming’.
27. Save a Tree! (28) — One of the first rallying cries of the Environmental Movement. Unfortunately, replacing a renewable resource with one made of petroleum created ecological problems of its own.
For this analysis, the Global Language Monitor collected data from the Internet, blogosphere, the top 300,000 print and electronic media, as well as new social media as they emerge.
About Global Language Monitor
Austin, Texas-based Global Language Monitor analyzes and catalogues the latest trends in word usage and word choices, and their impact on the various aspects of culture, with a particular emphasis upon Global English. In 2003, GLM first coined the term ‘ephemeral data’ as an attribute of ever-expanding Big Data. GLM has launched a number of innovative products and services monitoring the Internet, the blogosphere, social media as well as the top print and electronic media sites.
For more information, call 1.512.815.8836, email info@LanguageMonitor.com, or visit www.LanguageMonitor.com.
Most Recognized Word on the Planet: OK or O.K. or Okay
March 23, 2014. This week is the 175th anniversary of one of the great moments in the English Language: the old Boston Post newspaper printing the phrase ‘oll korrect’, in a bit of humorous wordplay back in 1839.
Earlier this afternoon, we performed a simple Google search for the word; the search returned some 1,200,000,000 references to OK. Not bad for a word no one is quite sure how to spell.
OK is now widely heard wherever one sets foot on the planet.
U.S. President Martin Van Buren (A.D. 1837–1841) was born in Old Kinderhook, New York. His nickname, Old Kinderhook, was incorporated into his re-election campaign slogan in 1840 (“Old Kinderhook is O.K.”). O.K. Democratic Clubs sprung up around the young nation. Van Buren was a founding member of the Democratic Party. (He was overwhelmingly defeated by the Whigs in his re-election attempt.)
Alternative derivations, since disproven, suggested that OK was from the Greek phrase ola kala for ‘all is well’ used in the shipping industry. Another, actually favored by president Woodrow Wilson, was that OK was derived from the Native American language of the Choctaw ‘okeh’.
However, what is well-documented is that the U.S. Presidential Election of 1840 catalyzed OK’s already growing usage and subsequent global expansion during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. After World War II, US hegemony cemented its global propagation.
As English became the world’s first, true global language with some 1.83 billion speakers, dominance of the software of the Microsoft Corporation further embedded it everyday use on the Internet. Some 80% of its computer programs that are ‘localized’ into native languages use the English word OK to assert completion or assent.
For good measure, the successful completion of a server response on the World Wide Web (of which there are billions every second) is defined as OK.
Now with the proliferation of social media, the word itself has further evolved with its shortening to the single letter, k.