This is a Google Translation of the original published in Han Chinese.
To read the original Chinese, click here.
“Three days of on the solar calendar, the compatriots on the restaurant. A democratic face, brutal head How many pieces. Small cubs are inflated to make the girl free. Not to be made, directly or indirectly also romantic,” “everywhere groups, everyone has the brains. Preservation of the true purpose, thought a good spirit. Hinterland Shing, the center of the deepest. out call ether, where they set policy. ” This is the beginning of the 20th century spread of the two doggerel, as when a large number of modern natural and social sciences new words into our country, causing a lot of sharp criticism and disapproval, this “group, brains, purpose, thought, spirit, principles, compatriots , democracy, expansion, freedom, directly or indirectly “and other things at that time were all quite the proposed” new words. ” Most of these new words imported from Japan, with a reputation for “liberal,” said a senior official Zhang Zhidong, also resented also argued that Ban used a new term known Japan.
But the language has some kind of forced, even to people who oppose change unknowingly use these “new words.” With the “new school” Nikko, to completely get rid of the new term is increasingly unlikely, even hate new words such as Zhang Zhidong, also can not escape. Once he asked his staff to be a running outline of a road, surprise, he intended to see the text after the “health”, they rage, pick up a pen award: “The health is a Japanese term used special feel hateful.” Throw also Zhang’s “handle”, it tit for tat to return, saying: “‘term’ is the Japanese term, The particular use of the hateful.” Duo broke up. Against the use of “Japanese term” persons, such as Zhang Zhidong, but can not get rid of “Japanese term” troubled indeed symbolic.
Do not want to over a hundred years later, the “CCTV” has encountered difficulties Zhang year. Not long ago, SARFT issued a notice to the CCTV, broadcast in the host population, the reporter interviews and subtitles can no longer use, such as NBA, CBA, F1, GDP, WTO, CPI and other foreign language acronym. However, the CCTV their station logo “CCTV” was also the English acronym. If further breakdown, many local television station logo also has a “TV” in English and Abbreviations “TV” words. TV ban foreign language abbreviations, they can not get rid of their foreign language abbreviations station logo, really embarrassing.
Hundred years, Zhang’s plight is almost identical with the embarrassment of CCTV, indicating a common fact or truth: Language has never been in flux, with the exchanges between different civilizations to exchange and accelerate better. In theory, the language of communication should be equal to each other, interact, exchange between different civilizations should be so absorbed with each other “foreign language.” But in fact the language is also very “snobbish,” as water is high to the low-flow, is simply “equal.” History shows that the evolution of language development, “foreign language” was more “advanced” and “center” to “backward”, “marginal” infiltration, invasion, reverse flows are rare, which had deeply affected former. The large number of “foreign language” in the modern with the Western Learning, and even “foreign” to the Home on the situation, Gein “Western” than “secondary” developed advanced also.
Whether happy or not, agree or not, this natural process is so difficult to man-made change, need not be bitter. If only “Cha Hukou” “talk origins” and that it must get to the root search origin, non-ancestors are not the root of red seedlings, must take this with a colonial foreign language all out the door, then we could hardly speak. Not check does not know, investigated surprised, we used some of the basic terminology, vocabulary, mostly been imported from Japan Modern. For example, when we unhesitatingly say “Serve the People”, “strengthen the organizational discipline,” “politics” and “eternal revolution” “application to join the party,” “master policy” and “fundamental policy”, “problem solving”, “learning theory, “” learn philosophy, “” principled “, this service, organization, discipline, political, revolution, party, principles, policies, application, solution, theory, philosophy, principles, etc., all come from the Japanese real “foreign language”, as well as economic, labor, science, business, cadres, logistics, health, socialism, capitalism, feudalism, republicanism, aesthetics, art, abstraction, logic, design … … and countless others all come from the Japanese.
Since the introduction of new concepts of modern China, Japan on the “Western” Translation is far better than China, while a large number of Chinese students studying in Japan, China and Japan “with the text” and many other reasons, so that the books translated from Japanese in Sino-Japanese War China After the defeat of Japan suddenly from behind, quickly exceeding the original books in Spanish translation. Liang to Japan soon after wrote “The benefits of learning Japanese,” the article as “Qing Yi Pao,” the editorial strength of the Japanese should learn from the mentality of the intellectuals of that time reflected. He wrote: “Japan Tour only a few months, wantonly Japan paper, reading the Japanese book, not seen in the membership in former times, successively touch the eyes, in former times the poor are not the reason, cavort in the brain, such as Youshi see the day belly was dry wine, complacent, and not selfish, is crying out to tell me comrade, saying: My new scholars interested person, the Japanese sample also learned from Japan Bunya. “A year later, he recalled that a year’s experience in Japan him, “whom Gaiyi brain quality, thought and speech, and if the former is a two.” Examines the Liang, who in recent years the paper, indeed, a major transformation, not only “Western” understanding by leaps and bounds, and the important terms used are basically from the original Chinese term used almost exclusively to the Japanese terms.
From 1900, the Chinese translation of new knowledge almost concentrated in Japan, and even almost every time a Japanese middle school textbooks have been translated into Chinese, even some teachers have also been translated handouts. It is worth mentioning that now has almost been forgotten Fan Diji translation series “compile general encyclopedia”, was widely distributed, large impact. “Book” includes the “knowledge” in various fields, is divided into eight categories: Religion and Philosophy 6, 1 species of literature, education, 5, 18 kinds of politics and law, science and 28 species of industry (including agriculture, commerce and industry) 22, the other 2. “Book” is the standard used by the Japanese term for the standardization of terminology of various disciplines in China played an important role. But even more interesting, because before the door of modern China in Japan by Western ships and armament to open, so “Western Learning” first while in Japan, so before and after the Meiji Restoration, Japan, China was the understanding of the West “Western” and one window, a number of missionaries in Chinese translation of “Western” a large number of books translated into Japanese publication. During this period many of the “new Japanese words” is from the Chinese, such as railway, railway, news, parliament, rights, sovereignty, law, elections, chemistry, botany, cell, logic … … numerous. However, a comprehensive modern Japan than modern China, “Japanese new word,” including some “native to China” is not as popular in China, new words, it in large quantities, rapidly into China.
It is through the introduction a lot of translation, a large number into the Japanese vocabulary into modern Chinese. These words quickly replaced the earlier works of Yan Fu’s translation of most of the terminology. Such as the strict translation of “Logic”, “Total study” as “logical”, “economy” replaced. Almost all kinds of subjects related to these new terms, or the newly created modern Japan, or Japan, while enabling innovative use of old words, and now borrowed by the vast number of Chinese intellectuals, which greatly enriched the Chinese vocabulary, and promoted many Chinese changes in the modernization movement in China laid the cornerstone of a very important.
But if today some Chinese prefer to use the term “post-colonial discourse,” the scholar’s words, this is really a Chinese, “he who” and even “self-time colonization.” Because they had the Japanese translation of English terms used (ie Japanese is English “colonization”), and now it is already Chinese, “colonization” of the Japanese “colonization” is indeed “self-time colonization.” So “colonial” to the Chinese today, if for the “purity” and that such issues as labor, revolution, party, principles, policies, application, solution theory … … of these “new Japanese word” all clear that we will be unable to speak, really become a serious problem in patients with aphasia. These words, has become an integral part of us. That “other” and “we” is ambiguous, it is transferable. Ancient Japanese borrowed Chinese characters in Japanese “otherness” and the introduction of modern Japanese and anti Chinese were a large number of Japanese “otherness” of, in the two “other” of the process, “the Other” are both organically as ” I “, or even hard to distinguish each other. This is a human and cultural exchanges to promote the development of normal. If you must, such as China, some “post-colonial” scholars strong points, as “he” and “I” which insists that “he” from “I” in get rid of, the result will only hurt his own body.
Cultural exchange, the introduction of new words of course can not leave the translation. Translation community to a free translation, transliteration of the dispute, but the transliteration of free translation might have been the era of globalization can not keep up “needs of the times”, simply Kara OK, B Super, CT, TV, KTV, DV, DVD, CD, VCD, 3G, BBS , MP3, IT, IP, QQ, CEO, CD-MA, ADSL, iPhone, iPad … … until with the “Super Girl” overnight popularity of PK, these “foreign language acronym” direct confusion into the “rain Li, ghosts cry at night” was created among the Chinese characters, as “Modern Chinese” part. True or false? Non-false? To ban this? Can not ban ban and strong, there will be Zhang-style embarrassment. As the final prohibition can not understand, so the authority of the “Modern Chinese Dictionary” long face reality, dedicated “the beginning of the Western alphabet, the words”; but is this part of the modern Chinese language, making it more thick.
In fact, there are “strong world language” of the so-called English, other languages are also suffering from the serious “pollution.” February 5, 2006’s “The Times” has issued a document evaluation of “Chinglish” (Chinglish) the impact, according to Texas-based “Global Language Monitor” (Global Language Monitor) released the report, English is experiencing unprecedented in the history of the changes, the first one million English words appear in this summer. Moreover, since 1994, joined the ranks of the vocabulary of international English, Chinese English contributed perhaps … more than any other source. “Surprisingly, due to the impact of China’s economic growth, it is now the impact of international English bigger than the English-speaking countries”, the agency head, a graduate of Harvard University linguist Paul Luopayake (PaulPayack) said, French foreign language in the 19th century, and then gradually decline in the 20th century, said to his words now only 10 million. The “Global English is no longer a British English or American English language dominance, but in unrestricted and with regional characteristics in the form of development.” Chinese English and as many as 60 similar to the English word, such as Spanish English (Spanglish), Japanese English (Japlish) and Indian English (Hinglish), have become very popular with the Internet. Payack that English has to win now, because it is eclectic, and the French are more conservative in its pure degree of specification by the French Academy. Results from 1997 to 2002, the European Union in French fell by 24% of the documents, documents in English increased by 32%. Perhaps, this is the “Times” to “pollution” standard English “Chinglish” to be tolerant, positive attitude toward the Yuan Yin, Taren Wei Chinese English enriched the English Biaodanengli Suoyi You positive impact. Language and ideology, culture, just as “tolerance is a virtue.”
Sino-Japanese cultural exchanges in modern Japan from the “new word” of “importing country” leap of “sending” an important reason is that the “new school” in Japan is much smaller than China encountered resistance. This “student position” history shows that, if closed to maintain a conservative cultural traditions, motives can be described as care and thought, but the result is not only no help in the matter, but more passive, “national culture” and so is even more impossible to talk about onwards. English and French in the competition far behind the French also illustrates the fact that only an open culture to gain the initiative, to really promote the national culture. I am afraid I repeat, do not reform and opening up to China’s national strength is greatly increased only after the world today, “Chinese fever” it? Which shows that the Chinese “soft power” of “Chinglish”, thus not only became English in a small landscape it?
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher at Institute of Modern History firstname.lastname@example.org