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‘Truth’ is Top Word, ‘Weinstein Effect’ the Top Phrase and ‘Xi Jinping’ the Top Name in Global English for 2017

Summary:  “Since the turn of the century, the Global Language Monitor has been naming the words of global English that have had the most profound influence upon the language, the culture, and/or the world of the 21st century,” said Paul JJ Payack, President, and Chief Word Analyst. “GLM ‘s methodology, true to its Silicon Valley heritage, is to examine the totality of Global English with the tools now available to better understand the underlying trends that shape our words and, hence, our world. Our goal remains to detect these small changes in the language that often presage titanic shifts in the way humans communicate.”

The Global Language Monitor’s 18th Annual Edition


For Immediate Release,

For More Information, call 001.512.801.6823 or email

November 16, 2017,  Austin, Texas – Truth has been named the 2017 Word of the Year for Global English (#WOTY2017) by the Global Language Monitor, in its eighteenth annual global analysis. In addition, the Weinstein Effect has been named the Top Phrase and Chinese leader Xi Jingping the Top Name of 2017.  Following ‘Truth’ were the words Narrative, Opioids, Awoke, and Nuclear Option.  Rounding out the Top Ten were Deep State, Robot Apocalypse, Higher Level of Fake News, Blessee, and Lean Into. 

Since the turn of the century, the Global Language Monitor has been naming the words of global English that have had the most profound influence upon the language, the culture, and/or the world of the 21st century,” said Paul JJ Payack, President, and Chief Word Analyst.

GLM ‘s methodology, true to its Silicon Valley heritage, is to examine the totality of Global English with the tools now available to better understand the underlying trends that shape our words and, hence, our world.

Our goal remains to detect these small changes in the language that often presage titanic shifts in the way humans communicate.”

In the recent past, some of the shifts first noted by the trend and narrative-tracking techniques of GLM include:

  1. The use of number sequences as clearly defined words (Y2k, Web 2.0)
  2. The use of Twitter as a new form of stylized human communication (2008)
  3. The introduction of emoji symbols as an addition to and transformation of the alphabet (2012)
  4. The rise of the Narrative presaging the rise of ‘fake news’ and the decline of ‘truth-based’ journalism. (2006)
  5. The mounting impact of the ‘sustainability’ and ‘Green’ movements (2006)
  6. The Rise of Microaggressions as a significant form of ‘bullying’ (2015)
  7. The continued emergence of English as the first truly global language (2000-)
  8. Big Data as the most frequently used but least understood word in High Technology (2011)
  9. The application of data mining techniques to global English to better understand the significance of global events and trends (2013)
  10. The Rise of China as the most significant (and de-stabilizing) event of the 21st century, thus far. (2008)
  11. Unveiling the racist underpinnings behind the rise of Fake News.

GLM has used these technologies to track political and social trends.

The eighteenth year of the 21st century provided words that accompanied the outsized geopolitical events of the age:  nuclear diplomacy, shattered trade alliances, the rise (and re-emergence) of nationalism in various parts of the planet, as well as varying degrees of ‘wokeness’ and intense debates over the role of the past in the present-day world.  Perhaps, most surprisingly, a debate over the nature of truth worthy of Athenian philosophers, of 12th-century Schoolmen — and the 18th c. Founders is currently quite the rage.


Global Language Monitor’s 2017 Words of the Year for Global English

Rank, Word, Previous Rank, Definition 

  1.  Truth (1) — Let’s face it.  The conversation is all about truth, or lack thereof.
  2.  Narrative (2) — As GLM noted in ’08, Narratives began replacing facts in politics; a harbinger to ‘fake news’.
  3.  Opioids (10) — More deaths than gun violence and automobiles crashed combined.
  4.  Post-Truth (16) — Objective facts are less influential than appeals to emotion or the prevailing narrative.
  5. Woke (New) — Awakening to issues of social and racial justice.
  6. Brexit (4) — [United Kingdom] Definition according to Theresa May:  “Brexit means Brexit”.
  7. Blessee (New) — [RSA, South Africa] Those who are shown financial favor through a ‘Sugar Daddy’ (New)
  8. Non-binary (13) — Gender identity defined as neither male nor female.
  9. Anthropocene (15) — The current geological time period where human activities have had a major environmental impact on the Earth.
  10. Latinx (11) — Neologism for the Hispanic heritage of any stripe.
  11. Ransomware (New) — A type of malware where targeted sites are ‘captured’ and rendered useless until a ransom is paid to the hackers.
  12. Tradie (New) — [Australia] Short for any worker in the trades:  tradesmen, e.g., electricians (sparkies), truckers (truckies), chippies (carpenter) and the like.
  13. Flip (New) — Any quick financial transact5on meant to turn a quick profit, particularly involving real estate.
  14. Covfefe — The Trumpian Typo Heard ‘Round the world.
  15. #Resist — From Latin resistere, from re- + sistere to take a stand
  16. Appropriation (Cultural) — Now refers to the exploitation of an ‘ethnic’ culture by those of white European heritage.

Missed the Cut and former rank: Antifa (18), Alt-right (17), Bigly (5), and Populism (19)


Global Language Monitor’s 2017 Top Phrases of the Year for Global English

Rank, Word, Previous Rank, Definition

  1.  Weinstein Effect (New) — (#MeToo) Emboldened women across the globe confront those who have been abused them in their past.
  2. Nuclear Option (7) — The use of nuclear weapons by either side in the on-going and decades-long North Korean standoff.
  3.  Deep State (New) — The idea that entrenched bureaucracies, beholden to no one, controlling the ship of state with little concern for elected officials.  In effect, a ‘Shadow’ government
  4. For Real (FR) (New) — [Indian] It took a half a century for the hip lingo of Venice Beach to proliferate to the call centers of India as FR.
  5. Robot Apocalypse (New) — The oncoming usurpation of Humankind by robots and other advanced forms of Artificial Intelligence.
  6. Fake News (New) — A higher level (and far more dangerous method controlling the news) through special relationships, the tight control of events, planting sources, and keeping the actual facts to a tight inner circle.
  7. Lean Into (New) — Being totally committed (or lean into) a cause, an initiative, or career choice.
  8. Non-binary (13) — Gender identity defined as neither male nor female.
  9. Memory Care (14) — Euphemism for treating Alzheimer and other forms of dementia
  10. Cultural Appropriation — Now refers to the exploitation of an ‘ethnic’ culture by those of white European heritage.

Missed the Cut and former rank: Alt-right (17), Dumpster Fire (9), Nuclear Option for US Senate (6), and Safe Place (20).


Global Language Monitor’s 2017 Top Names of the Year

Rank, Name

  1. Xi Jinping — General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
  2. Donald J. Trump — President of the United States of America; Trump took the Top Honors in 2016 and 2015.
  3. Pope Francis —  Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the 266th Pope of the Catholic Church, the Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City.
  4. Angela Merkel —  Angela Dorothea Merkel, Chancellor of Germany
  5. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin —  President of Russia
  6. Theresa May — P)rime Minister of the United Kingdom
  7. Kim Jung Un —   North Korean Strongman
  8. Narendra Modi — Prime Minister of India
  9. Donald Tusk — President of the European Commission
  10. Shinzō Abe — Prime Minister of Japan
  11. Justin Trudeau — Prime Minister of Canada


The Top Words, Phrases, and Names since the Turn of the Century

Top Words: No. 1 Truth, No. 2 Narrative, No. 3, #Resist
Top Phrases: No. 1 Make America Great Again No. 2 When they go low, we go high No. 3 The Electoral College
Top Names: No. 1 Donald Trump, No. 2 Vladimir Putin, No. 3 Neil Gorsuch

Top Words: No. 1 Microaggression (Safe Space, Trigger, Unsafe, Snowflake, White Privilege)
Top Phrases: No. 1 Migrant Crisis, No. 2 Je Suis Charlie, No. 3 Almond Shaming
Top Names: No. 1 Donald J. Trump, No. 2 Alan Kurdi, No. 3 Pope Francis

Top Words: No. 1 The Heart ♥ Emoji (for love), No. 2 Hashtag, No. 3 Vape
Top Phrases: No. 1 Hands Up, Don’t Shoot; No. 2 Cosmic Inflation, No. 3 Global Warming
Top Names: No. 1 Ebola, No. 2 Pope Francis, No. 3 World War

Top Words: No. 1 ’404’, No.2 Fail, No.3 Hashtag
Top Phrases: No. 1 Toxic Politics, No. 2 Federal Shutdown, No.3 Global Warming/Climate Change
Top Names: No. 1. Pope Francis, No. 2 ObamaCare, No.3 NSA

Top Words: No. 1 Apocalypse / Armageddon, No.2 Deficit, No. 3 Olympiad
Top Phrases: No. 1 Gangnam Style, No. 2 Climate Change/Global Warming, No. 3 Fiscal Cliff
Top Names: No. 1 Newtown and Malala Yousafzai, No. 3 Xi Jinping

Top Words: No. 1 Occupy, No.2 Fracking, No.3 Drone
Top Phrases: No. 1 Arab Spring, No. 2 Royal Wedding, No.3 Anger and Rage
Top Names: No. 1 Steve Jobs, No. 2 Osama bin-laden and Seal Team Six, No.3 Fukushima

Top Words: No. 1 Spillcam, No. 2 Vuvuzela, No. 3 The Narrative
Top Phrases: No. 1 Anger and Rage, No. 2 Climate Change, No. 3 The Great Recession
Top Names: No. 1 Hu Jintao, paramount leader of China, No. 2 iPad, No. 3 Barack Obama

Top Words: No. 1 Twitter, No. 2 Obama-, No. 3 H1N1
Top Phrases: No. 1 King of Pop, No. 2 Obama-mania, No. 3 Climate Change
Top Names: No. 1 Obama, No. 2 Michael Jackson, No. 3 Mobama

Top Words: No. 1 Change, No. 2 Bailout, No. 3 Obama-mania
Top Phrases: No. 1 Financial Tsunami, No. 2 Global Warming, No. 3 “Yes, We Can!”
Top Names: No. 1 Barack Obama, No. 2 George W. Bush, No.3 Michael Phelps

Top Words: No. 1 Hybrid (representing all things green), No. 2: Surge
Top Phrase: Climate Change
Top Name: Al Gore

Top Word: Sustainable
Top Phrase: Stay the Course
Top Name: Dafur

Top Words: No. 1, Refugee No. 2: Tsunami No. 3: Katrina
Top Phrase: Outside the Mainstream
Top Name: (acts of ) God

Top Word: Incivility (for inCivil War)
Top Phrase: Red States/Blue States No. 2: Rush to War
Top Name: Dubya/Rove

Top Word: Embedded
Top Phrase: Shock and Awe, No. 2: Rush to War
Top Name: Saddam Hussein, No. 2 Dubya

Top Word: Misunderestimate
Top Phrase: Threat Fatigue
Top Name: W (Dubya)

Top Word: Ground Zero
Top Phrase: ‘Lets Roll’
Top Name: The Heros

Top Word: Chad
Top Phrase:
Top Name: W (Dubya)

Methodology:  The words are culled from throughout the English-speaking world, which now numbers more than 2.35 billion speakers (January 2018 estimate) GLM employs its NarrativeTracker technologies for global Internet and social media analysis. NarrativeTracker is based on global discourse, providing a real-time, accurate picture about any topic, at any point in time. NarrativeTracker analyzes the Internet, blogosphere, the top 300,000 print and electronic global media, as well as new social media sources as they emerge.

For More Information, go to or call 001.512.801.6823.


New York Bests Paris for 2017 Top Global Fashion Capital Title


Now Ranking the Top 63 Global Fashion Capitals 

AUSTIN, Texas, September 2017 —  In another close battle between New York and Paris, New York took four of the five categories to take the Top Global Fashion Capitals crown for 2017.  Since 2011, the Top spot has been traded between New York, Paris, and London, each taking the Top Spot twice. Completing the Top Ten for 2017following New York and Paris were Barcelona, Milano, Rome, London, Amsterdam, Berlin, Las Vegas, and Dubai.

“Since we are expanding to include a number of cities, each with emerging and burgeoning fashion scenes, we are quite excited about the 2017 Global Fashion Capital rankings,”  said Paul JJ Payack, president and chief word analyst of the Global Language Monitor.   “Fashion continues to drive both economic growth for the region as well as a release of creativity that will most certainly impact their city, their region, and perhaps even the world”. #NYFW

The current 2017 rankings now include 63 fashion capitals.  There are three new fashion capitals from West Africa:  Accra, Ghana; Dakar, Senegal; and Lagos, Nigeria.

There is one new fashion capital from East Asia: Kuala Lumpur.  There is one new fashion capital from the Middle East:  Beirut, Lebanon.  Before the various insurgencies in the region,  Beirut was known as the Paris of the Middle East.   There are two new fashion capitals from North America:  Portland, Oregon known for its ‘weird’ culture, much like Austin, Texas and Columbus, Ohio known in the fashion world as the manufacturing headquarters of Henri Bendel, Victoria’s Secret, the Bath & Body Works, Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F), and others.


No. 3 Barcelona — Moving into Big Four Territory is Big News by definition.

No. 4 Milano — Reclaiming its Big Four status; hmm, perhaps all that re-thinking and revamping just might be having an impact (we’ll see in 2018).

No. 6 London — Had a great run earlier in the decade, but not so great lately (If you consider the No. 6 spot not so great).

No. 7 Amsterdam — Moving up 15 spots is quite a move.

No. 9 Vegas — Back in the Top Ten, more evidence that the Red Carpet experience does indeed have an impact.

No. 10 Dubai — More evidence that billions of dollars Do, indeed, have an impact.

No. 17 Seoul — Finally making the move in Asia, not No. 1, but a respectable No. 3 regionally.

No. 21 Washington, DC — A move into respectability!?

No. 28 Melbourne and No. 34 Sydney — Trading Places

No. 44 Portland, OR — A very nice debut.

No. 47 Kuala Lumpur — Another solid debut.

No. 46 Boston, No. 48 Miami, No.53 Chicago, No. 54 Houston, and No. 59 Toronto — All down by twenty spots, or more.

No. 63  Cracas — On Hiatus due to Insurrection.

The complete Rankings follow:

Top 63 Global Fashion Capitals 2017


  Top 63 Global Fashion Capitals 2017


2017 Fashion Capital Last 2017 Fashion Capital Last
1 New York 2 32 Copenhagen 36
2 Paris 1 33 San Francisco 37
3 Barcelona 7 34 Sydney, Australia 13
4 Milano 6 35 Sao Paulo 16
5 Rome 5 36 Antwerpen 25
6 London 3 37 Johannesburg 48
7 Amsterdam 23 38 Dallas, Texas 20
8 Berlin 8 39 Austin, Texas 45
9 Las Vegas 26 40 Abu Dhabi 55
10 Dubai 17 41 St. Petersburg 35
11 Singapore 14 42 Cape Town 41
12 Hong Kong 12 43 Mexico City 53
13 Florence 11 44 Portland, Oregon Debut
14 Los Angeles 4 45 Frankfurt am Main 51
15 Madrid 9 46 Boston 24
16 Bali 40 47 Kuala Lumpur Debut
17 Seoul 56 48 Miami, Florida 19
18 Prague 33 49 Monaco 21
19 Rio de Janeiro 18 50 Atlanta, Georgia 32
20 Buenos Aires 29 51 New Delhi 39
21 Washington, DC 54 52 Vancouver, B.C, 52
22 Moscow 22 53 Chicago, Illinois 27
23 Tokyo 10 54 Houston, Texas 30
24 Santiago 43 55 Montreal, Quebec 47
25 Vienna 34 56 Dakar, Senegal Debut
26 Shanghai 15 57 Beirut, Lebanon Debut
27 Mumbai 38 58 Krakow 44
28 Melbourne 49 59 Toronto, Ontario 28
29 Stockholm 46 60 Lagos, Nigeria Debut
30 Bangkok 50 61 Columbus, Ohio Debut
31 Warsaw 42 62 Accra, Ghana Debut
32 Copenhagen 36 63 Caracas Hiatus
Copyright ©2017 Global Language Monitor Copyright ©2017 Global Language Monitor

The Watch List for 2018  includes: Abidjan, Auckland, Jakarta, and other nominated by industry experts.


Top Fashion Capitals by Region

Europe:  Paris, Barcelona, Milano, Rome, London, Amsterdam, Berlin, Florence, Madrid, Stockholm, Antwerp, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, and Monaco.

India::  Mumbai and New Delhi (Mumbai (+24)

Australia:  Melbourne and Sydney (+6)

East Asia:   Singapore, Hong Kong. Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, and Bangkok

RSA: Johannesburg, Cape Town (+5)

Middle Europe:  Prague, Moscow,  Vienna, Warsaw,  St Petersburg, and Krakow

Canada:  Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver,

Mideast::  Dubai, Abu Dhabi

Spain:  Barcelona and Madrid (+12)

Latin America:  Rio de Janerio, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Sao Paulo,  and Mexico City.  Caracas is on ‘Hiatus’.

Regional US:   New York, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, San Francisco, Dallas, Austin, Portland, OR, Boston, Miami,  and  Houston


Methodology: For this analysis, the Global Language Monitor used its proprietary Brand Affiliation Index (BAI), the same technology used to measure global brand equity for the Olympics, World Cup, the Fortune 500, and others. This exclusive, GLM longitudinal-study encompasses the prior three years to better assess short-term velocity and longer-term momentum. The study is a Big Data textual analysis based on billions of web pages, millions of blogs, the top 375,000 global print, and electronic media, and new social media formats as they appear. This survey, which was first made public in 2007.

Background:  The Top Global Fashion Capitals are now recognized as the standard in the fashion world, as you can see below.  For the 2017 edition, we are tracking more than three-score established and emerging centers of fashion. Our efforts have attracted an inordinate number of citations in the global media, as well as in academic, research and texts. For more than a decade now, the Global Language Monitor has employed its proprietary algorithms to cut through the world of Big Data establishing the definitive, nonbiased rankings of the Top Global Fashion Capitals.

The result is a longitudinal survey that runs for three years, with its final updating in the weeks before the yearly announcement. GLM surveys. billions of web pages, millions of blogs, the top 300,000 global print and electronic media, as well as new social media sources as they emerge.  In effect, any and all databases available on the web, including key proprietary databases for specific content.

About the Global Language Monitor

In 2003, The Global Language Monitor (GLM) was founded in Silicon Valley by Paul J.J. Payack on the understanding that new technologies and techniques were necessary for truly understanding the world of Big Data, as it is now known.  Previous to this Payack was the founding president at, and a senior executive for a number of leading high tech companies.

Today, from its home in Austin, Texas GLM provides a number of innovative products and services that utilize its ‘algorithmic services’ to help worldwide customers protect, defend and nurture their branded products and entities. Products include ‘brand audits’ to assess the current status, establish baselines, and competitive benchmarks for current intellectual assets and brands, and to defend products against ambush marketing.

These services are currently provided to the Fortune 500, the Higher Education market, high technology firms, the worldwide print and electronic media, and the global fashion industry, among others.

For more information, call 1.512.801.6823, email, or visit

In the News, Some Classics

GLM In the News: A Selection

The Global Language Monitor is used as a media source for the print and electronic media around the globe.

Hundreds of news articles around the world incorporate GLM research every yea.

You can find links to some of the classic examples below.

Nikki Tundel (MPR) on
Climate Change

Top Fashion Capitals

net on the Most Confusing Acronym (SOA)

NY Times’ Safire acknowledges existence of
HollyWords that GLM has been highlighting since 2004

Ben MacIntyre (London Times) on
sexiness of large vocabulary

GLM citation named as Landmark in its history

Hindustan Times: Arabs ahead of the English in cyberspace?

Der Spiegel: Chinglish Die Sache mit dem ding

Washington Post’s Millionth Word Contest Results

Other Language Stats: Number, Top Ten, On the Internet, by Country, etc.

People’s Daily (China): Many Chinglish into English

The Sunday Times (London): Chinglish - It’s a word in a million

Connecticut Post:Getting the word out - for the Millionth Time

Enumerating English: Geoffrey Nunberg (NPR/Fresh Air) Can’t Count Words; Who Cares!?

Global English by Neil Reynolds:
Spread the Word, English is Unstoppable

Independent News (London): Chinglish Phrases on the Rise

USAToday: Colbert’s ‘Truthiness’ Strikes a Chord

MSNBC: ‘Truthiness’ Among Top TV Buzzwords of the Year

HollyWORDS: Just Plain Bill banned in Hollywood Name Game

The New York Times: The Real Estate Bubble - The Power of Words
Click Here

More GLM in the News …





Der Spiegel

Chinglish Die Sache mit dem Ding


Globe and Mail (Canada)

Spread the Word, English is Unstoppable



Hooray! ‘SOA’ voted most ‘confusing acronym of the year’


Chinese Lecture Series

A General Survey of Translation


The Sunday Times (UK)

Tweet, blog, text: the words that define the Noughties



More than a Dozen GLM Articles, Just Press [Enter] Once the Page Resolves


Are ‘climate change’ and ‘global warming’ interchangeable?


‘Truthiness’ among top TV buzzwords of year



Stride and Saunter

A Linguistic Examination of Emoji


The Most Used ‘Word’ Of 2014 Isn’t Even A Word! Find Out The Surprising Symbol HERE!






China Bans ‘TV Words’ from Chinese TV …

CCTV Headquarters

This is a Google Translation of the original published in Han Chinese.

To read the original Chinese, click here.

Three days of on the solar calendar, the compatriots on the restaurant. A democratic face, brutal head How many pieces. Small cubs are inflated to make the girl free. Not to be made, directly or indirectly also romantic,” “everywhere groups, everyone has the brains. Preservation of the true purpose, thought a good spirit. Hinterland Shing, the center of the deepest. out call ether, where they set policy. ” This is the beginning of the 20th century spread of the two doggerel, as when a large number of modern natural and social sciences new words into our country, causing a lot of sharp criticism and disapproval, this “group, brains, purpose, thought, spirit, principles, compatriots , democracy, expansion, freedom, directly or indirectly “and other things at that time were all quite the proposed” new words. ” Most of these new words imported from Japan, with a reputation for “liberal,” said a senior official Zhang Zhidong, also resented also argued that Ban used a new term known Japan.

But the language has some kind of forced, even to people who oppose change unknowingly use these “new words.” With the “new school” Nikko, to completely get rid of the new term is increasingly unlikely, even hate new words such as Zhang Zhidong, also can not escape. Once he asked his staff to be a running outline of a road, surprise, he intended to see the text after the “health”, they rage, pick up a pen award: “The health is a Japanese term used special feel hateful.” Throw also Zhang’s “handle”, it tit for tat to return, saying: “‘term’ is the Japanese term, The particular use of the hateful.” Duo broke up. Against the use of “Japanese term” persons, such as Zhang Zhidong, but can not get rid of “Japanese term” troubled indeed symbolic.

Do not want to over a hundred years later, the “CCTV” has encountered difficulties Zhang year. Not long ago, SARFT issued a notice to the CCTV, broadcast in the host population, the reporter interviews and subtitles can no longer use, such as NBA, CBA, F1, GDP, WTO, CPI and other foreign language acronym. However, the CCTV their station logo “CCTV” was also the English acronym. If further breakdown, many local television station logo also has a “TV” in English and Abbreviations “TV” words. TV ban foreign language abbreviations, they can not get rid of their foreign language abbreviations station logo, really embarrassing.

Hundred years, Zhang’s plight is almost identical with the embarrassment of CCTV, indicating a common fact or truth: Language has never been in flux, with the exchanges between different civilizations to exchange and accelerate better. In theory, the language of communication should be equal to each other, interact, exchange between different civilizations should be so absorbed with each other “foreign language.” But in fact the language is also very “snobbish,” as water is high to the low-flow, is simply “equal.” History shows that the evolution of language development, “foreign language” was more “advanced” and “center” to “backward”, “marginal” infiltration, invasion, reverse flows are rare, which had deeply affected former. The large number of “foreign language” in the modern with the Western Learning, and even “foreign” to the Home on the situation, Gein “Western” than “secondary” developed advanced also.

Whether happy or not, agree or not, this natural process is so difficult to man-made change, need not be bitter. If only “Cha Hukou” “talk origins” and that it must get to the root search origin, non-ancestors are not the root of red seedlings, must take this with a colonial foreign language all out the door, then we could hardly speak. Not check does not know, investigated surprised, we used some of the basic terminology, vocabulary, mostly been imported from Japan Modern. For example, when we unhesitatingly say “Serve the People”, “strengthen the organizational discipline,” “politics” and “eternal revolution” “application to join the party,” “master policy” and “fundamental policy”, “problem solving”, “learning theory, “” learn philosophy, “” principled “, this service, organization, discipline, political, revolution, party, principles, policies, application, solution, theory, philosophy, principles, etc., all come from the Japanese real “foreign language”, as well as economic, labor, science, business, cadres, logistics, health, socialism, capitalism, feudalism, republicanism, aesthetics, art, abstraction, logic, design … … and countless others all come from the Japanese.

Since the introduction of new concepts of modern China, Japan on the “Western” Translation is far better than China, while a large number of Chinese students studying in Japan, China and Japan “with the text” and many other reasons, so that the books translated from Japanese in Sino-Japanese War China After the defeat of Japan suddenly from behind, quickly exceeding the original books in Spanish translation. Liang to Japan soon after wrote “The benefits of learning Japanese,” the article as “Qing Yi Pao,” the editorial strength of the Japanese should learn from the mentality of the intellectuals of that time reflected. He wrote: “Japan Tour only a few months, wantonly Japan paper, reading the Japanese book, not seen in the membership in former times, successively touch the eyes, in former times the poor are not the reason, cavort in the brain, such as Youshi see the day belly was dry wine, complacent, and not selfish, is crying out to tell me comrade, saying: My new scholars interested person, the Japanese sample also learned from Japan Bunya. “A year later, he recalled that a year’s experience in Japan him, “whom Gaiyi brain quality, thought and speech, and if the former is a two.” Examines the Liang, who in recent years the paper, indeed, a major transformation, not only “Western” understanding by leaps and bounds, and the important terms used are basically from the original Chinese term used almost exclusively to the Japanese terms.

From 1900, the Chinese translation of new knowledge almost concentrated in Japan, and even almost every time a Japanese middle school textbooks have been translated into Chinese, even some teachers have also been translated handouts. It is worth mentioning that now has almost been forgotten Fan Diji translation series “compile general encyclopedia”, was widely distributed, large impact. “Book” includes the “knowledge” in various fields, is divided into eight categories: Religion and Philosophy 6, 1 species of literature, education, 5, 18 kinds of politics and law, science and 28 species of industry (including agriculture, commerce and industry) 22, the other 2. “Book” is the standard used by the Japanese term for the standardization of terminology of various disciplines in China played an important role. But even more interesting, because before the door of modern China in Japan by Western ships and armament to open, so “Western Learning” first while in Japan, so before and after the Meiji Restoration, Japan, China was the understanding of the West “Western” and one window, a number of missionaries in Chinese translation of “Western” a large number of books translated into Japanese publication. During this period many of the “new Japanese words” is from the Chinese, such as railway, railway, news, parliament, rights, sovereignty, law, elections, chemistry, botany, cell, logic … … numerous. However, a comprehensive modern Japan than modern China, “Japanese new word,” including some “native to China” is not as popular in China, new words, it in large quantities, rapidly into China.

It is through the introduction a lot of translation, a large number into the Japanese vocabulary into modern Chinese. These words quickly replaced the earlier works of Yan Fu’s translation of most of the terminology. Such as the strict translation of “Logic”, “Total study” as “logical”, “economy” replaced. Almost all kinds of subjects related to these new terms, or the newly created modern Japan, or Japan, while enabling innovative use of old words, and now borrowed by the vast number of Chinese intellectuals, which greatly enriched the Chinese vocabulary, and promoted many Chinese changes in the modernization movement in China laid the cornerstone of a very important.

But if today some Chinese prefer to use the term “post-colonial discourse,” the scholar’s words, this is really a Chinese, “he who” and even “self-time colonization.” Because they had the Japanese translation of English terms used (ie Japanese is English “colonization”), and now it is already Chinese, “colonization” of the Japanese “colonization” is indeed “self-time colonization.” So “colonial” to the Chinese today, if for the “purity” and that such issues as labor, revolution, party, principles, policies, application, solution theory … … of these “new Japanese word” all clear that we will be unable to speak, really become a serious problem in patients with aphasia. These words, has become an integral part of us. That “other” and “we” is ambiguous, it is transferable. Ancient Japanese borrowed Chinese characters in Japanese “otherness” and the introduction of modern Japanese and anti Chinese were a large number of Japanese “otherness” of, in the two “other” of the process, “the Other” are both organically as ” I “, or even hard to distinguish each other. This is a human and cultural exchanges to promote the development of normal. If you must, such as China, some “post-colonial” scholars strong points, as “he” and “I” which insists that “he” from “I” in get rid of, the result will only hurt his own body.

Cultural exchange, the introduction of new words of course can not leave the translation. Translation community to a free translation, transliteration of the dispute, but the transliteration of free translation might have been the era of globalization can not keep up “needs of the times”, simply Kara OK, B Super, CT, TV, KTV, DV, DVD, CD, VCD, 3G, BBS , MP3, IT, IP, QQ, CEO, CD-MA, ADSL, iPhone, iPad … … until with the “Super Girl” overnight popularity of PK, these “foreign language acronym” direct confusion into the “rain Li, ghosts cry at night” was created among the Chinese characters, as “Modern Chinese” part. True or false? Non-false? To ban this? Can not ban ban and strong, there will be Zhang-style embarrassment. As the final prohibition can not understand, so the authority of the “Modern Chinese Dictionary” long face reality, dedicated “the beginning of the Western alphabet, the words”; but is this part of the modern Chinese language, making it more thick.

In fact, there are “strong world language” of the so-called English, other languages are also suffering from the serious “pollution.” February 5, 2006’s “The Times” has issued a document evaluation of “Chinglish” (Chinglish) the impact, according to Texas-based “Global Language Monitor” (Global Language Monitor) released the report, English is experiencing unprecedented in the history of the changes, the first one million English words appear in this summer. Moreover, since 1994, joined the ranks of the vocabulary of international English, Chinese English contributed perhaps … more than any other source. “Surprisingly, due to the impact of China’s economic growth, it is now the impact of international English bigger than the English-speaking countries”, the agency head, a graduate of Harvard University linguist Paul Luopayake (PaulPayack) said, French foreign language in the 19th century, and then gradually decline in the 20th century, said to his words now only 10 million. The “Global English is no longer a British English or American English language dominance, but in unrestricted and with regional characteristics in the form of development.” Chinese English and as many as 60 similar to the English word, such as Spanish English (Spanglish), Japanese English (Japlish) and Indian English (Hinglish), have become very popular with the Internet. Payack that English has to win now, because it is eclectic, and the French are more conservative in its pure degree of specification by the French Academy. Results from 1997 to 2002, the European Union in French fell by 24% of the documents, documents in English increased by 32%. Perhaps, this is the “Times” to “pollution” standard English “Chinglish” to be tolerant, positive attitude toward the Yuan Yin, Taren Wei Chinese English enriched the English Biaodanengli Suoyi You positive impact. Language and ideology, culture, just as “tolerance is a virtue.”

Sino-Japanese cultural exchanges in modern Japan from the “new word” of “importing country” leap of “sending” an important reason is that the “new school” in Japan is much smaller than China encountered resistance. This “student position” history shows that, if closed to maintain a conservative cultural traditions, motives can be described as care and thought, but the result is not only no help in the matter, but more passive, “national culture” and so is even more impossible to talk about onwards. English and French in the competition far behind the French also illustrates the fact that only an open culture to gain the initiative, to really promote the national culture. I am afraid I repeat, do not reform and opening up to China’s national strength is greatly increased only after the world today, “Chinese fever” it? Which shows that the Chinese “soft power” of “Chinglish”, thus not only became English in a small landscape it?

Lei Yi

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher at Institute of Modern History

What do top English words tell?

By Xiao Xiaoyan (China Daily)

Ten years ago, no one had heard of “H1N1”, “Web 2.0”, “n00b”, or talked about “de-friending” someone on “Twitter” or “Facebook”. Now these are part of people’s everyday vocabulary.

The world is changing. Inevitably, so are our words.

The English language is going through an explosion of word creation. New words are coined - some, like “n00b”, may not even look like words; old words take on new meanings - “twitter” today bears little relation to the Middle English twiteren. According to the Global Language Monitor (GLM), in 2009 the English language tipped the scales with a vocabulary of one million words. Not good news for the 250 million people acquiring English in China.

GLM, the San Diego-based language watcher, publishes annual lists of top words and phrases by tracking words in the global print and electronic media, the Internet, blogs, and social media such as Twitter and YouTube.

Each year’s list reflects major concerns and changes taking place that year. For instance, from the 2009 list, we have to acknowledge the fact that technology is reshaping our ways of living (twitter, web 2.0).

We need to face up to the after-effects of a “financial tsunami” (stimulus, foreclosure), a pandemic (H1N1), the death of revered pop icon (MJ, King of Pop) and the debates over “healthcare reform” and “climate change” that mark the year.

A quick rundown of GLM’s top words/phrases of the decade is precisely like watching clips of a documentary of the decade. From the lists we are reminded of the series of world-shaping events from 9/11(2001), tsunami (2004) to H1N1 (2009), and we see the huge impact the Internet and new technologies have made on our lives, from the burst of the “ bubble” (2000) to blog (2003), Google (2007) and Twitter (2009), which represent a new trend in social interaction.

The lists are also witnesses of the influences of entertainment sector such as the film “Brokeback” (2004) a new term for gay to “Vampire” (2009), now a symbol of unrequited love. Michael Phelps’s 8-gold-medal accomplishments at the Beijing Olympics had created a Phelpsian (2008) pheat.

The Chinese equivalence of top words came in a more complex fashion. First there are lists of expressions only, not single words. Second, there exist two completely separate lists. One is the list of top expressions from mainstream print media, while the other popular Internet expressions is selected annually from netizen votes.

The mainstream list first appeared in 2002; the Internet version came out in 1999. What is most interesting is that the top expressions on the two sets of lists rarely overlap: The one being mostly concerned with what is public, official, involving macro concerns and interests; the other being private and personal, reflecting attitudes and feelings of the younger generation.

Just like the English top words lists, the Chinese mainstream lists also reflect major events, albeit with a different angle, for instance, anti-terror (2002), Saddam Hussein (2003), bird flu (2004), prisoner abuse (2004) and G20 Summit (2009). The Chinese press also seem much more concerned with the two Olympics and the two World Cups taking place during the decade.

Internet-spawned new words are also creeping into the Chinese language: texting, blog, Baidu (Google’s main competitor in China) and QQ (the Chinese social-networking site) became buzz-words in China, though somewhat later than their English counterparts.

The Chinese entertainment sector is leaving a much bigger impact on the language. Famous lines from Chinese movies or popular shows pass on to become everyday expressions. For instance, “Integrity makes the man” from Cell Phone; “You will pay for what you have done sooner or later” from the Hong Kong movie “Infernal Affairs,” which most Chinese people believe was copied by Hollywood in “The Departed.” ” Money is not a problem” a theme line from a popular skit has become the standard version to satirize certain Chinese people’s pompous attitude to money and concern over face rather than over efficiency.

Green living as a concept is becoming a focus of concern in China too, though on a delayed time schedule. Compared with the fact that “climate change” has dominated the English lists since 2000, the Chinese version didn’t become a top expression till 2009, though expressions like “energy-conservation society” and “energy conservation and emissions reduction” did make their way to the 2005 and 2008 lists.

Although Chinese top expressions demonstrate similar trends to those in English, there are a few most distinctive features. A strong political flavor is found in the Chinese list as reflected in top expressions like the Three Represents (2002), Scientific Approach to Development (2004), and Peaceful Development (2005).

Another most outstanding feature of the Chinese lists is the contrast between the mainstream print media and the Internet: The English lists represent the spread of words in both print and digital media, the Internet, blogs and social media. The Chinese Internet buzzwords are mostly used on the Internet; although many have passed on into everyday life, only a small number have crept into the mainstream media.

Unlike the mainstream media, popular Internet expressions represent what the ordinary Chinese people are actually talking about in non-official contexts. Most of the expressions are highly colloquial, living, creative, and can be cynical. Some of the expressions reveal the new values and attitudes towards current affairs. For instance, da jiang you, which literally means “on the way to get soy sauce”, speaks of a “not concerned” or “staying out of it” attitude. This attitude is also reflected in the expression: zuo fu wo cheng, which literally means “doing push-ups”, in other words not paying any attention to what’s happening.

Some Internet words have gained acceptance in the mainstream media. For instance shan zhai, which literally means “mountain village”. It has now been adapted to mean “counterfeit”, or things done in parody, as in “shanzhai mobile phones”, “shanzhai New Year’s Eve Gala”, and even “shanzhai celebrities”.

From a linguistic point of view, language is simply a tool for communication. When new ideas and concepts pop up, language needs to adapt itself to allow the communication of these ideas and concepts. If the Internet is reshaping our lives, the net-language is only reflecting such changes.

The author is associate professor at the English Department of Xiamen University.

(China Daily 04/16/2010 page9)

Top News of Decade: Rise of China Surpasses Iraq War and 9/11

Austin, TX December 9, 2009 – In an exclusive analysis performed by the Global Language Monitor, the Rise of China has been determined to be the Top News Story of the Decade followed by the Iraq War, the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks, the War on Terror, and the Death of Michael Jackson. Completing the Top Ten were the Election of Obama to US presidency, the Global Recession of 2008/2009, Hurricane Katrina, the War in Afghanistan, and the onset of the Financial Tsunami/Economic Meltdown. Rounding out the list were the Beijing Olympics, the South Asian Tsunami, the War against the Taliban, the Death of Pope John Paul II, and Osama bin-Laden eludes capture.

Chinese pundits saw GLM’s analysis “was partly aimed at trumpeting the so-called China threat.  The list is the latest sign of the US media’s change from China bashing to China flattery.”  Read how the story unfolded below.

The Original story in Beijing’s People’s Daily

The criticism from China Daily, the official government paper:  The Rise of the Dragon

The follow-up report from Wall Street Journal’s Beijing bureau

The Financial Times’ take on the debate

Chinese Economic Review:  The Hard Bigotry of Too-high Expectations

People’s Daily:  Chinese Ambassador to the UK summarizes China’s position

The methodology: The analysis factored in the number of citations over the course of the decade on the Internet, the blogosphere, including social media, as well as the top 50,000 print and electronic media sites.

“The rise of China to new economic heights has changed – and continues to challenge – the current international order,” said Paul JJ Payack, President and Chief Word Analyst of the Global Language Monitor. “It is with little surprise that its ongoing transformation has topped all other news stories in a decade bespotted by war, economic catastrophe, and natural disasters.”

Read Ben MacIntyre it in the Sunday Times (London):  Words that define the Noughties

Rank/News Story/Comment

1. Rise of China – The biggest story of the decade, outdistancing the No. 2 Internet story by 400%.

2. Iraq War — The buildup, the invasion, the hunt for the WMDs, and the Surge were top in print and electronic media outlets.

3. 9/11 Terrorist Attacks – The 9/11 Terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, DC seemed to set the tone for the new decade.

4. War on Terror – President George W. Bush’s response to 9/11.

5. Death of Michael Jackson – A remarkably high ranking considering that MJ’s death occurred in the final year of the decade.

6. Election of Obama to US presidency – The rallying cries of ‘hope’ and ‘Yes, we can!’ resulting in the historic election of an African-American to the US presidency.

7. Global Recession of 2008/9 – The on-going world economic restructuring as opposed to the initial ‘economic meltdown’ or ‘financial tsunami’.

8. Hurricane Katrina — New Orleans was devastated when the levies collapsed; scenes of death and destruction shocked millions the world over.

9. War in Afghanistan – Now in its eighth year with an expansion into neighboring Pakistan.

10. Economic Meltdown/Financial Tsunami – The initial shock of witnessing some 25% of the world’s wealth melting away seemingly overnight.

11. Beijing Olympics – The formal launch of China onto the world stage.

12. South Asian Tsunami – The horror of 230,000 dead or missing, washed away in a matter of minutes was seared into the consciousness the global community.

13. War against the Taliban – Lands controlled by the Taliban served as a safe haven from which al Qaeda would launch its terrorist attacks.

14. Death of Pope John Paul II – The largest funeral in recent memory with some 2,000,000 pilgrims in attendance.

15. Osama bin-Laden eludes capture – Hesitation to attack Tora Bora in 2002 has led to the continuing manhunt.

This analysis was completed on December 1, 2009 using GLM’s Predictive Quantities Indicator (PQI), the proprietary algorithm that tracks words and phrases in the media and on the Internet, now including blogs and social media. The words are tracked in relation to frequency, contextual usage and appearance in global media outlets, factoring in long-term trends, short-term changes, momentum and velocity.

The Global Language Monitor has recently named the Top Words of the Decade. They were Global Warming, 9/11, Obama, Bailout, Evacuee, and Derivative; Google, Surge, Chinglish, and Tsunami followed. “Climate Change” was top phrase; “Heroes” was top name.